Zou Chenchen of Tencent Technology
July 2020 is an important time window for Mars exploration. This month, China, the United States and the United Arab Emirates launched space probes to Mars respectively.
From the end of February to the beginning of March, after seven months of trekking, the probes of China, the United Arab Emirates and the United States successfully arrived on Mars. The United Arab Emirates’ hope Mars probe, NASA’s perseverance Mars rover and China’s tianwen-1 probe successively sent back images of Mars, including the color photos of Mars taken by hope when it was 24700 km away from the surface of Mars, the 360 degree panoramic images taken by perseverance using mastcam-z instrument, and the black-and-white and color images of Mars taken by tianwen-1 using high and medium resolution cameras.
Through these images, the mystery of Mars is gradually solved.
Tianwen-1 has launched scientific exploration in the berthing orbit
Since February 26, tianwen-1 has carried out scientific exploration in its berthing orbit. At present, tianwen-1 is about 223 million kilometers away from the earth. On March 4, the National Space Administration released three high-definition images of Mars taken by China’s first Mars exploration mission, tianwen-1.
Among them, two panchromatic images (black-and-white images) are the most clear images of Mars obtained in China. They were taken by high-resolution cameras at an altitude of about 330 km to 350 km from the surface of Mars, with a resolution of about 0.7 M. the small star craters, ridges, hills and other landforms on the surface of Mars in the imaging area are clearly visible. The high-resolution camera is equipped with two kinds of imaging detectors, which can realize linear push broom and area array imaging, and carry out fine observation on the topography of key areas.
Panchromatic picture 1
Panchromatic picture 2
The color image was taken by a medium resolution camera at an altitude of 5000 km from Mars, showing the north pole region of Mars. Li Chunlai, deputy chief designer of China’s first Mars exploration mission, said that the spiral structure in this picture is the polar cap of Mars’ north pole, which is caused by perennial deposition and ablation. The huge dust storms on Mars often originate in the polar regions – the Arctic and the Antarctic. This camera is convenient to monitor the formation process of dust storms.
Image from “the most complex Mars Rover” – willpower: high definition, visible grains of sand and stone
This Mars rover is the most complex one developed by human beings. It uses nuclear power, weighs more than 1 ton and costs 2.7 billion US dollars. On July 30, 2020, willpower blasted off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Base in Florida to begin its seven month journey to Mars, and landed safely in Jezero crater in the early morning of February 19, Beijing time.
The mastcam-z instrument, attached to the mast of the willpower, can rotate to take a 360 degree panoramic view. It has two cameras, which can take not only high-definition pictures, but also videos and 3D images.
This is a picture of NASA’s willpower returning to earth on February 28.
UAE’s “Hope” — the first Mars photo in UAE history
On February 14, the United Arab Emirates released the first picture of Mars sent back by the Mars probe hope.
As can be seen from the figure, the largest volcano in the solar system, Mount Olympus, is just at the position of the morning and evening line of Mars and gradually tends to be bright; three volcanoes, namely, mount alcia, mount Pavonis and mount askeles, are listed on the tarsis plateau in the southeast of Mount Olympus in turn.
On July 20, 2020, hope was launched from the space center of saigawa, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Its main mission is to study the daily and seasonal changes of Martian climate and atmosphere. After half a year, the probe flew nearly 500 million kilometers and entered Mars orbit in the United Arab Emirates at 19:40 local time on February 9, making the United Arab Emirates the fifth country to reach Mars.
Zou Chenchen of Tencent Technology