There is glass in the soil that chang’e-5 brought back! What’s going on?

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Tencent science and technology news on the morning of February 27, the exhibition of “Lunar Sample 001, witness of China’s flying dream” was opened to the public at the National Museum.
Chang’e-5 mission is not only the first time for all mankind to retrieve lunar soil in the past 44 years, but also the first time for us Chinese to retrieve lunar soil. The public appearance of Chinese lunar soil immediately aroused the attention and hot discussion of the whole nation.
On December 17, 2020, the chang’e-5 capsule landed safely and brought back nearly 2 kg of lunar samples, which is the first time to realize the return of China’s extraterrestrial objects.
It is reported that the Lunar Sample 001 contains 100g of lunar soil samples, and its container material is artificial crystal. The overall shape is based on the bronze “Zun” shape collected by the National Museum of science and technology. The overall external shape is 38.44cm high, symbolizing the average distance between the earth and the moon of 384400km; the overall external shape is 22.89cm wide, symbolizing the mission of chang’e-5 from launch to return of 22.89 days. Lunar soil is stored in the shape of hollow sandwich sphere in its center.
Why is there glass in lunar soil?
The news broadcast also introduced the lunar soil retrieved by chang’e-5. When the lunar soil is magnified by 20 times, the brown glassy material can be seen clearly under both reflected light and perspective light. Our common glass is the product of artificial firing. How can we get small broken glass from the moon?
It was more than 50 years ago that Apollo landed on the moon in the United States. The moon bases of the United States and other countries are still on paper. Obviously, the glass on the moon is not an artificial product. Man made glass is produced at high temperature. In the same natural high temperature environment, glass will also be produced. For example, when meteorite impacts, rock melts and cools at high temperature to form glassy material.
one thousand eight hundred and forty-four Darwin, a British scientist, obtained a strange glassy stone from Australia (later named Darwin glass). At that time, there were two main explanations for its origin: one was the origin of the earth, which thought it was the product of volcanic eruption or meteorite impact on the earth; the other was the origin of the moon, which thought it was the product of volcanic eruption or meteorite impact It came out.
It was more than 50 years ago that Apollo landed on the moon in the United States. The moon bases of the United States and other countries are still on paper. Obviously, the glass on the moon is not an artificial product. Man made glass is produced at high temperature. In the same natural high temperature environment, glass will also be produced. For example, when meteorite impacts, rock melts and cools at high temperature to form glassy material.
one thousand eight hundred and forty-four Darwin, a British scientist, obtained a strange glassy stone from Australia (later named Darwin glass). At that time, there were two main explanations for its origin: one was the origin of the earth, which thought it was the product of volcanic eruption or meteorite impact on the earth; the other was the origin of the moon, which thought it was the product of volcanic eruption or meteorite impact It came out.
There is a dense atmosphere on the surface of the earth. Most meteorites burn up before they fall to the ground. Only larger meteorites can fall to the ground. However, the moon does not have a dense atmosphere, and meteorites of all sizes can impact the moon to form craters. Because there is no atmospheric buffer to reduce the velocity of meteorites, the velocity of meteorites impacting the lunar surface generally exceeds 12 km / s. when the impact occurs, huge shock waves and heat will be generated. The surface of meteorites and the impacted lunar surface will melt or even vaporize rapidly in an instant. At the same time, a large number of materials will splash out during the impact. Whether it is left on the moon or splashed out of the molten material, it can form natural glass after cooling. This is the origin of the tiny glassy stones in chang’e-5 lunar soil, and also answers the origin of Darwinian glass.
What important problems can we hope to solve through the new lunar sample?
Previous studies of lunar samples from the United States and the former Soviet Union showed that volcanic activity on the moon peaked 3.5 billion years ago, then weakened and stopped.
However, the observation of other characteristics of the lunar surface shows that some areas may contain volcanic lava formed only 10 to 2 billion years ago, which indicates that volcanic activities on the moon may have stopped relatively late.
Basalts from about 1.3 to 2 billion years ago exist near the rumuke mountains. Through the study of these rock samples, scientists can finally confirm when the volcanic activity in this area stopped, which will provide the most important clue to the evolution history of the moon.
Therefore, when chang’e-5 brought the samples from the rumke mountains back to earth, scientists will analyze these samples in the laboratory, hoping to solve this classic problem. (this article synthesizes cnr.com and China Aerospace news, etc.)