Express brother trapped in Gmv


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By Zhu Xiaoyu
Source / fuel Finance (ID: chainruth)
“All my unhappy shopping experiences on double 11 are from rookie post station!”
“Most of the express delivery delivered by Tongda department is not delivered to the door, and it is useless to make phone calls. Contact the courier, people also told me that Taobao shopping in Ma Yun should be put in Ma Yun’s post station. ” After experiencing the shopping spree of double 11, Wang Qi, who lives in Tongzhou, Beijing, said that all her shopping happiness was affected by express delivery. She bought several goods on double 11. Because she had to go to the rookie post station to pick up the items, Wang Qi had been queuing for more than half an hour after work to pick up the items. “I’m very tired after work. I’ll wait in line to pick up my pieces. When I get home, I’m tired and have no fun.”
But some of the express delivery after Taobao shopping is no longer delivered to the home, but directly stored in the rookie post station, which is not a recent event. Wang Qi observed that in the past year, more and more express delivery services without door-to-door delivery have been piled up in the rookie post station.
Wang Qi’s community post station is transferring stores. After inquiring, she found out that it was necessary to change to a larger base business. She didn’t think it was a good signal. “Maybe the express delivery will not be delivered to the door. If it’s an occasional delivery, it can be accepted. But now almost all express delivery is thrown to the post station, and there is no time to pick it up. I have a fresh one left in the post station for three days, and it stinks when I get it. Moreover, as long as I go to get the express, it will take half an hour to queue up. ”
Wang Qi’s experience is more and more happening to consumers. One Zhihu netizen posted that the slogan of “the last mile” is loud. When I was shopping, Taobao pushed several rookie post stations for me, so I chose the post station 0 meters away from me, because I had just moved there, but I didn’t go to verify it. Later, I found that the post station was several kilometers away from me, and I had to take the bus to get it. It really solved the convenience of my last kilometer. ”
But for the matter of no longer delivering goods to the door, the couriers and express delivery practitioners think that they are also “back pot swordsmen”. In their view, they are also one of the victims.
Fuel finance has followed up the couriers and express operators in Tongzhou, Haidian, Chaoyang, Yanjiao, Hebei and other regions. They have their own grievances about not delivering goods to their homes. Express brother Zhang Ran explained to fuel finance and economics, “the volume of express delivery is increasing rapidly, and there are not enough people. I can only sleep for a few hours until midnight every day, but I still can’t deliver it.”
According to the number of express delivery outlets in the past year, more and more small number of express delivery began.
What makes the express boys feel even more unhappy is that, with the increase of workload, the unit price of delivery has not increased, but decreased by 0.3 yuan. After adjustment, their income has been greatly reduced. Their express outlets are also slowly losing staff, and the final result is that there are more and more express deliveries that are too late to send out. “Putting them in the post station is the best solution.”.
Zhang Ran told fuel finance and economics that the express companies of Tongda department mainly join in, and the franchise outlets are responsible for their own profits and losses. This year, the express companies have started a price war, and many costs are shared by the outlets. The couriers are directly employed by the outlets. They and the outlets belong to a community of interests. As the income of the outlets declines and the owners cannot earn money, they will naturally adjust the wages of the couriers accordingly.
User chart of queuing up for express delivery
In fact, it is not only the couriers, but also the franchise outlets of express companies. Not long ago, a number of media reported that many express franchise outlets went bankrupt; some outlets suffered huge losses, and the boss couldn’t pay their salaries, and even chose to run away directly.
In the past five years, China’s e-commerce industry has maintained a growth rate of no less than 17%. No matter tmall or Jingdong, the Gmv of double 11 sets a new record every year. However, the express industry has seen a rise in business volume, but the decline in net profit.
In September this year, the business volume of Yunda was 1.463 billion, up 64.94% year-on-year; Shentong’s business volume was 860 million, up 18.62% year-on-year; Yuantong’s business volume was 1.217 billion, up 50.06% year-on-year. However, according to the results of the third quarter, the net profits of Shentong and Yunda decreased by 99.53% and 47.83% respectively. Only Yuantong recorded a small increase, but also increased slightly by 0.69% year on year. Baishi express and Zhongtong, which are listed in the US stock market, have not yet released their financial reports.
The decline of net profit comes from the price war between express companies. In the revenue composition of express companies, the main revenue comes from b-end big customers, while the revenue contribution of C-end users is relatively small. Although the unit price of C-end express is rising every year, the unit price of b-end express delivery has decreased year by year. According to the financial report of the first half of 2020, the single ticket price of express delivery business of six logistics enterprises has all declined by more than 20%, among which, the single ticket price of Shunfeng fell by 22.18%, Zhongtong by 21.86%, Yunda by 28.48%, Yuantong by 25.23% and Shentong by 21.34%.
“The so-called price war is to exchange price for quantity. Although the volume is increasing, the unit price profit is decreasing,” a warehouse manager in a certain area of Beijing told fuel finance. Only when the whole industry is left with a few two or three express enterprises, it is possible to recover to benign
Behind the price war of express companies, it is to undertake more e-commerce express delivery. For the e-commerce platform, only by compressing the logistics cost and giving profits to the merchants and consumers can the production and re consumption be stimulated, and the platform and businesses can win a win-win situation. However, logistics is also one of the core of e-commerce. If the distribution experience is not good, it will eventually restrain the shopping desire of users.

Shao Zhonglin, Deputy Secretary General of the China Express Association, told ran finance and economics, “in the past decade, the average unit price of China’s express delivery has been decreasing every year. A large part of the reason is that e-commerce companies use the market monopoly to lower the price of express headquarters. In order to get more e-commerce products, express companies will adjust the unit price of express delivery every year, and these costs are basically transferred to the express companies Franchise outlets. This bad way of competition, leading to Jingdong, Shunfeng, such as direct sales of express giant companies also began to reduce the unit price, visible Tongda express company’s competitive pressure. ”
“There are too many delivery orders. They will be delivered later today.”
After receiving the customer’s expediting call, Zhang Mingming, a Yunda courier in Beijing, must speed up the pace of delivery to complete today’s delivery task. If it can’t be completed, the system will impose a corresponding fine. In addition, the tasks that have not been completed in the previous two days will add up to several times, which means that the hard work of a day will be wasted.
In recent years, there are more and more express delivery, which is Zhang Mingming’s most intuitive experience since he was engaged in this industry for three years. Before the first half of 2019, his daily delivery task is about 150 pieces. With the number of pieces taken into account, he can spare no effort to complete the distribution task every day, and he can also get the company’s prize. However, since June 2019, the number of express delivery from his hands has increased significantly, from 160 pieces and 180 pieces to 300 pieces in peak season. This year, the number of double 11 deliveries is even more excessive. His daily delivery order has exceeded 400 pieces.
Zhang Mingming also switched from the previous leisure to the current tense state, because a little relaxation, this day’s distribution task can not be completed, not only can’t get bonus, but also will be deducted salary. Before 2019, there was no such heavy punishment.
Now every day when I think of the delivery task, Zhang Mingming has a headache. A person with only two legs, only 24 hours a day, can’t send more than 400 pieces. Zhang Mingming made an account for the fuel finance and economics department. He started at 6 o’clock every day and arrived at the sorting center in half an hour. The half hour fashion car was finished and returned to the outlets in half an hour for delivery in batches. Before 12:00 a.m., only more than 80 pieces could be delivered. At noon, he had to go to the sorting center again to collect goods, and there was still an hour and a half wasted on the non delivery road, which could not be saved.
More express, more than intuitive feelings. According to the forecast of the State Post Office, from November 1 to November 16, the volume of postal (express) items handled by the whole industry will reach 5.78 billion, an increase of about 47% over the same period last year. Among them, the peak of peak season will appear from November 11 to 16, and the daily average express business volume is expected to reach 490 million pieces, which is twice the daily business volume. In addition, the transaction data of e-commerce platforms such as Jingdong, pinduoduo and vipshop are also growing at the same time.
In this context, the recruitment needs of couriers are also rising. Last year, the State Post Office released the “report on the regulation of express delivery market in 2019”, which showed that the number of employees in the express industry in 2019 had exceeded 3 million, but the 3 million express industry still could not meet the market demand. Not long ago, the big data of courier employment released by 58 cities showed that in October this year, the recruitment demand of express delivery personnel increased by 16.11% month on month, and Beijing ranked first.
Zhou Bin, another Yuantong courier, also expressed the same worry. The rapid increase in express delivery, the growing gap in employment, and the delivery tasks that cannot be completed have become an endless circle. At the beginning of 2020, more than 30 couriers in his network lost more than 20 due to the sharp increase in express delivery volume and unreasonable punishment measures, leaving only 7 old employees, and the flow of new couriers is also very large.
“In the past, I could get off work at 6:7 p.m., but now if every Express has to be delivered to the door, it is normal to work until 11:12 p.m. every day.” Zhou Bin said that today’s double 11 orders are more than in previous years, starting from November 1, the off-duty time will not be earlier than 1:00 a.m., and after work, the courier has to go to the site to sort and prepare for the next day’s work. In order to improve efficiency, express delivery companies began to send ferries directly from the sorting center to deliver Express items to the outlets, so that couriers could concentrate on delivery, he told fuel finance.
Zhou Bin showed fuel finance that on November 11, his wechat movement steps showed 50000 steps, which was the peak value in history, while his daily steps were only more than 20000 steps.
At first, he was attracted by the “rumors” of simple work and high salary in the express industry. Now he plans to leave after finishing his last vote in November. When he left a few days ago, Lao ban promised him a monthly salary of 15000 yuan in order to retain him. This temptation made him feel that he could carry on for another month. Express brother said, “at the beginning of the express delivery, I still feel very painful. Now I work completely by instinct, mechanically repeat actions, and my soul has already flown out of the body.”
Zhang Mingming has a very clear perception that from 2019, customers’ requirements for delivery standards are higher and higher, and the company’s requirements for courier service are also higher and higher. In order to improve customer satisfaction and the minimum number of bad comments, he will try to meet the requirements of customers, such as separate delivery, delivery within the specified time, refusing to sign the express delivery and re delivery, which means that his labor intensity will be greatly improved.
But even so, customer satisfaction is still declining, and there are more and more complaints about express delivery. There were nearly 3 million effective complaints against black cats, of which 143000 were related to express delivery, accounting for 4.8%. In the third quarter of 2020, Hunan Provincial consumption Commission accepted a total of disputes over postal express delivery industry, with a year-on-year increase of 54.65%. The main problems reflected by consumers are: the package delivery is not timely and the delivery is not door-to-door; the Express items are put into the express cabinet without the consent of consumers; the delivery security is not strong, and there are some phenomena such as package damage and loss.

On October 31, Zhang Mingming received a complaint of 300 yuan for not being delivered on time. According to Zhang Mingming, a customer called to urge the delivery on the same day and asked to send it before he left for the plane at 9:30, otherwise, he had a bad comment. The express should have been delivered on the 30th, but the progress of logistics and sorting has been delayed on the way of delivery. As the last link of distribution, the courier can only try his best to deliver the express.
However, Zhang Mingming told ran finance and economics that couriers should deliver goods in batches every day, one from morning to noon and the other from noon to evening, because these two times are the fixed arrangement for the courier to pick up goods from the outlets after the warehouse logistics sorting. That is to say, he must complete all the links from the warehouse to the transportation and distribution before 9:30 in the morning. According to the conventional operation, this is almost impossible.
However, he still early to the warehouse, strive for early loading, with the fastest speed to deliver to the site for customers. But the accumulation of express delivery is like a mountain top, until this batch of all loaded goods have been more than seven o’clock. At 9:20, seeing that the deadline was approaching, Zhang Mingming again received a reminder call from the customer and learned that Zhang Mingming had 20 minutes to go before delivery, and the other party resolutely made a complaint.
In fact, Zhang Mingming has estimated that even if the tricycle runs the red light all the way according to the fastest steps of the tricycle, plus the time of entering the community, finding express delivery, locking the car and climbing stairs, the fastest delivery to the customer will be 8-10 minutes late. Therefore, to a large extent, this complaint is accepted. Even if the reasons for the complaint are very good, but because of this complaint, Zhang Mingming’s reward for that month was deducted, because “the customer’s satisfaction is not guaranteed.”.
“Helpless”, this is Zhang Mingming’s biggest feeling in the express industry in the past three years. Qihua’s customers and boss demand too much, which makes his salary shrink passively. He has been on the verge of emotional collapse several times and wants to resign.
According to Taobao logistics customer service, a customer complaint will cost the courier 300 yuan, and there is a penalty mechanism. This mechanism will also affect the overall income of the courier.
Photo / fire finance screenshot
The contradiction between Zhang Mingming and consumers is that they have different positions and different views. On Weibo, there have been 18.985 million views on the topic of ා couriers failing to deliver according to the wishes of consumers. Many netizens have posted that it is illegal for couriers not to deliver goods, so they can complain if they don’t deliver goods. The “Interim Regulations on express delivery” implemented in May 2018 is the basis for them to require door-to-door delivery.
The Interim Regulations on express delivery stipulates that enterprises engaged in express delivery business shall deliver the express delivery to the agreed receiving address, the addressee or the receiver designated by the addressee, and inform the addressee or the receiver’s agent of face-to-face acceptance. The addressee or the receiver on his behalf shall have the right to accept the goods in person. It means that the courier refused to deliver the goods to the door is a violation of the regulations.
Photo / fire finance screenshot
Zhou Bin, an express boy who has worked in Yuantong for more than three years, has the same feeling. “In 2018, many express delivery will not be delivered to the door, which has become a kind of social default normal. But now even if the express is put in Fengchao, customers are not willing to pick it up, and they all require delivery to their door. The delivery fee of 1 yuan per piece has to be delivered home. If there is no one at home when the delivery is made, you have to wait for the customer to get home to deliver it again. It’s really tiring. ”
Not only are customers more and more picky, but also the boss is demanding more and more. Zhou Bin said that the express outlets he worked in never stressed the need for “door-to-door delivery”. In fact, due to the shortage of manpower and the increasing number of orders, the express outlets should not only protect the warehouse, but also acquiesce in the “hidden rules” of not delivering goods to the door.
However, once you are complained about the reason of “no delivery to your door”, not only will the system deduct money, but also will affect the scoring and assessment of couriers in the company in the current month, and affect the payment of bonus. Zhou Bin said, “because rookie network has strict regulations on express delivery companies, every single bad comment and complaint will affect the ranking of express outlets in the whole evaluation system, and the reduction of scores will naturally affect the income of express outlets.”
In addition to complaints, Zhou Bin also carries a “KPI”, if the day’s delivery can not be completed, the express brother will also be monitored by the system and fined. Therefore, the delivery quantity and the guarantee of door-to-door delivery have become the contradictions that the couriers can not take into account.
In order to solve this problem, Zhou Bin and his colleagues will give priority to the delivery of “troublesome” customers that have been marked in the system, and the express delivery that cannot be delivered will be put into the rookie post station or Fengchao express cabinet. If the customer calls for delivery, they will take out the delivery separately. Zhou Bin said, “after all, it was the courier who resisted everything.”
On the day of the interview, Zhou Bin delivered a refrigerator to the customers in the area. Originally, the work should be completed by colleagues in the large parts group. However, due to the shortage of manpower, Zhou Bin temporarily helped the customers. After the delivery, the customers did not rush to sign in. Zhou bin and his colleagues were asked to replace the old ice box and then carry the old refrigerator downstairs and throw it away. On this day, Zhou Bin spent nearly half an hour on this delivery. He did not finish the task in time. He could only put the rest of the express delivery in the rookie post station and Fengchao express cabinet, which represented that his income would be greatly reduced.
Compared with the amount of delivery orders that can not be completed, wage cuts and arrears are the more painful pain points for the couriers.
In 2018, Yunda express, where Zhang Mingming works, costs 1.3 yuan for a single delivery and 180-200 pieces a day. With the base salary, reward and collection income, the monthly income can easily exceed 10000 yuan.
Zhang Mingming told ran finance and economics that in 2018, because of their positive work, good service attitude and more delivery orders than ordinary couriers, colleagues in the same outlet earned more than 200000 yuan in salary and bonus in the whole year, which is the “King” in Zhang Mingming’s eyes. However, Zhang Mingming believes that even if the “King” wants to earn more than 200000 yuan in the express delivery industry, he also needs to have a good objective environment. After several adjustments in the delivery unit price, Zhang Mingming’s income has plummeted. His “King” colleague also turned to be a delivery rider at the end of last year.
Zhang Mingming called 2018 the last highlight of the express industry, because the price war began in 2019.

In May last year, in order to compete for the cake of e-commerce express, SF took the lead in price reduction, provoking a price war in the express industry, and Tongda Department reduced the express ticket price one after another. From March to June this year, the war situation became more and more fierce. Some express companies even hit the lowest market price of “8 hair nationwide” in Yiwu Trade City, Zhejiang Province.
Huang Hao, an e-commerce executive of e-cigarette brand, told ran finance that in June 2019, he found that the unit price of many express delivery companies began to drop. Originally, he planned to pay 3.5 yuan per piece, but Yunda express, which cooperated with him, pushed the price down to 3 yuan / piece. Before that, Yunda paid 6 yuan / piece.
Express companies gain market share by means of price war, but the cost of price war is not only borne by express companies themselves, but also transferred to basic agents and couriers.
According to the public information, 40% of the franchisees are in loss, 50% of the franchisees are in the same profit and loss, only 10% make money. The income of grass-roots outlets and grassroots couriers has been squeezed to the survival red line.
Huang Hao told fuel finance that “express franchise outlets are divided into first-class franchisees and second-class franchisees. The second-class franchisees not only need to pay contract fees and deposits to the first-class franchisees, but also undertake various assessment tasks distributed by the first-class franchisees. If the sending and receiving tasks fail to meet the requirements, they will be fined. At the same time, the secondary franchisees also need to bear the store rent and staff costs. The profit space of grass-roots outlets is squeezed, and the cost will be transferred to the courier. This is the basic normal of the industry competition to the end. ”
Zhang Mingming’s branch took the lead in adjusting the delivery unit price in May. The delivery fee of each order was first reduced from 1.3 yuan to 1.1 yuan, and then to 1 yuan, with a continuous drop of 0.3 yuan. For a piece by piece courier, he has to deliver nearly 60 more couriers every day to get the same income as before. The 60 orders are almost half of Zhang Mingming’s workload, which makes Zhang Mingming feel incredible.
Zhang Mingming said that the income guarantee of Tongda express is not comparable to that of Shunfeng and Jingdong couriers. They have no basic salary, no five insurances and one fund. Their wallets are not shrinking because of the daily delivery orders. Even so, the delivery unit price of Tongda department is not comparable to that of SF.
A young brother of Shunfeng express told the company that compared with the Tongda department, SF gave them excellent conditions: five insurances and one fund, and a base salary. The delivery unit price of each order was between 2.1 and 2.4 yuan. If there was a continuous weight Express (more than 1 kg), the delivery unit price was even more than 2.5 yuan. Their daily delivery order is more than 150 pieces. During the period of double 11 this year, they have about 300 pieces. Their monthly income is nearly twice that of Tongda department.
However, the younger brother also said that although the income is higher than that of Tongda department, the labor level and service quality are also higher. “SF has strict regulations. All express delivery must be delivered to the door and let me sign for it. It is strictly forbidden to release it at will, even Shunfeng’s own express cabinet can’t work. It can be placed in Fengchao unless it is requested by the customer or no one delivers it for the second time. ”
In addition to price competition, express companies also engaged in service competition. Zhang took the lead in responding to the call for a fine of 50 yuan for the delivery of the express service, such as the improvement of the standard for the delivery of the express at the headquarters. But these assessment standards, in the eyes of couriers, are the embodiment of the company’s disguised pay cut.
It is difficult to avoid the per capita penalty of RMB 1000 to other express outlets. Now Zhang Mingming’s salary is shrinking at a visible speed, from 12000 yuan before to more than 8000 yuan. Zhang Mingming calls out that “some of them will not survive if they are reduced again”.
Compared with the courier who was in arrears, the pay cut has been much luckier.
According to time finance and economics, a few months ago, couriers from Yuantong, a franchise express company in Shipai, Guangzhou, went on strike twice because of wage arrears.
In fact, the couriers have left frequently because of wage arrears and low delivery bill fees. On November 11, according to people, an employee of a Yunda branch in Baoding, Hebei Province, chose to leave because of arrears of wages by the site. At the beginning of September, Hubei Xiaogan Zhongtong express delivery outlets fell again and again due to a drop in payment fees, and the employees went on a collective strike. On September 3, Baishi express Nanjing Jiangning express station had no income for three months and was forced to stop work.
The direct consequence of express industry competition to the end is that the company’s net profit continues to decline. Take Zhongtong express, which ranks first in the market share, as an example. The financial report shows that in the second quarter of this year, listed companies completed a total of 4.6 billion express business, a year-on-year increase of 47.9%. In just one year, Zhongtong’s express business volume has increased by more than 2 billion tickets, but the profit per ticket has dropped from 0.44 yuan to 0.32 yuan.
Logistics is another leg of e-commerce. Compared with traditional retail, home delivery is one of the core competitiveness. It can be said that the rapid development of logistics in recent years is driven by e-commerce.
As early as 2007, Ali began to explore logistics. Ma Yun and Gou Taiming invested in Baishi logistics. Later, Alibaba gradually controlled the controlling right of Baishi express. In July 2010, Baishi logistics also acquired 70% equity of Huitong express. According to the documents of the securities and Exchange Commission of the United States, as of June 3, 2020, Alibaba held 142 million shares of Baishi group, accounting for 37.2% of the class A shares of Baishi group and 33% of the total share capital of Baishi group, which is the largest shareholder of Baishi group.
In 2009, double 11 made its debut for the first time, with a turnover of only 52 million yuan. However, the pressure on logistics was obvious. In that year, the logistics system had problems of warehouse explosion and delivery delay. Since then, with the increasing turnover of double 11, this problem has become more and more prominent.
Photo / microblog @ spokesperson for rural teachers – Ma Yun

In 2010, Alibaba put forward Taobao logistics plan. In 2011, Alibaba’s logistics information management system “logistics treasure” was officially launched. “Logistics treasure” is essentially a logistics information deployment platform. Alibaba connects the information of third-party express delivery and storage, and provides warehousing, delivery, door-to-door collection and other services for Taobao sellers. Through data analysis, the system can track the use of logistics resources, reduce the flow of goods between different places, so as to reduce costs and improve efficiency.
In May 2013, tmall invested 2.15 billion yuan, accounting for 43% of the shares, to establish rookie Network Technology Co., Ltd. Ali also brought in Zhejiang Yintai group, Shanghai Fosun Group, Yuantong, Shunfeng, Zhongtong, Yunda, Shentong and other capitals, with a total registered capital of 5 billion yuan.
After that, Ali successively completed the investment in Tongda system. In May 2015, Alibaba joined hands with Yunfeng fund to invest in Yuantong, with a shareholding of about 11%; in May 2018, Alibaba announced that Alibaba, rookie, etc. invested $1.38 billion in Zhongtong express, accounting for about 10%. On July 2, 2019, Shentong express announced that Deyin holdings had transferred 49% of its equity of Deyin Derun to Alibaba, and Alibaba paid 4.66 billion yuan for this. Three companies in “four links and one access” have obtained strategic support from Alibaba.
As an express company of Ali department, Baishi Express has always been famous for its low price. According to the annual report of 2014-2019, Baishi has accumulated a loss of about 5 billion yuan in the past six years, of which, the net loss attributable to the parent from 2017 to 2019 was 1.228 billion yuan, 508 million yuan and 202 million yuan respectively.
In the express industry with similar operation mode and homogeneous service, express companies, in order to have competitive advantages, take Baishi express as the reference object and adjust the express unit price to get more E-Commerce orders.
In May this year, Baishi, Shentong, Yuantong and other express companies announced that they would appropriately adjust the preferential range of express service prices. And their preferential target is mainly the company’s big customers.
The rise of pinduoduo has further lowered the price of express delivery. In the first half of this year, Jitu express, which opened the express logistics market at a low price, took pinduoduo as the basic dish. It not only seized the market with low price, but also tapped the outlets and couriers of the express department with the conditions of higher than the market price. According to the all-weather science and technology report, in July and September this year, Yunda, Yuantong and Shentong, three big mountains in the express industry, all formed a comprehensive ban on the polar rabbit and refused to cooperate.
In fact, the competition of express companies is beneficial to businesses and platforms.
Huang Hao said that the daily delivery of 5000 orders, 150000 orders a month, 1.8 million orders in a year, the logistics cost of each piece will be reduced from 6 yuan to 3 yuan, and the logistics cost can be reduced by 5.4 million yuan in a year. This capital can be put into reproduction and improve the efficiency of capital utilization. Among them, to buy flow from Taobao is the largest investment in reproduction.
Industry insiders said, “in fact, there are only two or three giants in the express industry, but under the support of Ali system, four links and one delivery, and every day are living well. The checks and balances between these express companies will not effectively challenge the discourse power of e-commerce. ”
*The title and some of the pictures are from visual China. At the request of the interviewers, Wang Qi, Zhang Ran, Zhang Mingming and Zhou Bin were all pseudonyms.
(statement: This article only represents the author’s point of view, not Sina’s position.)