Original title: News survey Shanghai garbage classification, how can the front-end efforts not be wasted? What about the back end?
CCTV News reported on October 11 that on July 1, 2019, Shanghai municipal solid waste management regulations were formally implemented, which has been rated as the “strictest” garbage classification legislation in history for a year. In the past year, Shanghai’s garbage sorting front-end has made remarkable achievements. What will be done with these different wastes that have been sorted hard at the back end? Where is the wet garbage after the broken bag? How to form an effective closed-loop collection and transportation of recyclable materials? How to find a stable sales path? Compulsory garbage classification forces the front-end people to produce garbage, but what is the situation of the back-end? How to connect the front and back ends so that the front-end efforts are not wasted? “News survey” continues to focus on the classification and treatment of garbage in Shanghai.
Wet waste has always been the number one problem of urban garbage in China. China’s wet waste was the first to mix with other wastes, and landfill was used for disposal. Leachate will pollute groundwater resources. Incineration is faced with the problems of high cost and low cost. Therefore, in Chinese cities, the key of front-end domestic waste classification is dry wet separation, and the key point of end disposal is how to utilize resources.
At present, eight large-scale wet waste recycling facilities with a daily treatment capacity of more than 200 tons have been built in Shanghai, and two projects are under construction. After the completion of the project, all the wet garbage in Shanghai will be recycled.
Closed loop construction, wet garbage does not come out of Hongmei
The largest garbage disposal base in Shanghai has been sent to Meihong for disposal. Until the beginning of the implementation of the local regulations on waste classification in Shanghai, Hongmei Street boldly proposed the management goal of “no wet waste out of Hongmei” in order to relieve the pressure of wet waste disposal at the end of Shanghai. Since then, Hongmei Street wet waste disposal has become one of the pilot sites in Shanghai to explore the localization of wet waste disposal.
Huayue home, with nearly 10000 residents, is the largest living community in Hongmei street. Prior to the installation of wet waste disposal equipment, Huayue home’s current garbage warehouse site often encountered complaints from nearby residents. At the beginning, even though the environmental sanitation department increased the frequency of garbage removal and transportation, Huayue home, which has nearly 10000 people, inevitably faces the odor of garbage fermentation in the summer.
In order to eliminate the secondary pollution problems such as fermentation odor and breeding pests of wet garbage in large residential areas, Hongmei Street introduced the garbage disposal equipment of Tianwei environmental protection by the way of government purchasing services from enterprises after the start of garbage classification.
Wu Wenwei, director of Shanghai Hongmei street greening and city appearance management office: This machine can deal with a bucket of garbage every 15 minutes, so the garbage of this community can be treated in 8 hours a day in this machine, and the wet garbage will not ferment, and the complaints of people about the odor of garbage are basically gone.
Since then, Huayue home has become one of the pilot sites to explore the localization of wet waste disposal in Hongmei street. At the four garbage disposal sites in Huayue home, four volunteers like this are waiting by the garbage cans during rush hours every morning and evening. Every day, 28 cleaners of Huayue home need to take turns to inspect more than 70 barrels of wet garbage, which is about 3 tons, in the community. Because only the higher the purity of the wet waste, the longer the service life of the machine.
Pu Yapeng, Secretary of the Party Working Committee, Hongmei street, Xuhui District, Shanghai: the local utilization of wet waste resources is of great benefit to our local people, that is, it reduces the link of cleaning and transportation, and closely connects the classification and disposal.
The first experience of environmental protection, the “Museum” of wet garbage around the citizens
With the completion of the environmental protection experience center covering an area of 350 square meters, the pilot project of localization of wet garbage in Hongmei street has officially formed a new mode of “one district, three points”. The environmental protection experience center of Xuhui District is not only the only small-scale Science Museum for wet waste disposal in Shanghai, which is open to the public in the central urban area, but also the centralized treatment station for all wet garbage in Hongmei street.
Pu Yapeng, Secretary of the Party Working Committee of Hongmei street, Xuhui District, Shanghai: you can’t look at the future with your inherent ideas. Garbage stations can be very tall, garbage stations can also appear in the city center. If we reverse thinking, we will force the development of technology and establish very strong constraints to force technological innovation.
Another more important function of Xuhui District citizen environmental protection experience center is “the wet garbage museum around the public”. On June 1 last year, after the public experience center of Xuhui District was officially opened to the public, a number of community residents were welcomed. Let them most intuitively see how the wet garbage they throw can be turned into treasure through technology and how to make the best use of it.
Wu Wenwei, director of Hongmei street greening and city appearance management office, Shanghai: the garbage will be fed back to the community in the end, because it will become fertilizer. Chemical fertilizer is not used for greening the community, which is also a kind of resource saving.
Every day, 40-50 tons of fresh wet garbage will be sent to Hongmei street in time. After being crushed, dehydrated and deoiled, the waste residue will be mixed into biological bacteria compost, then bagged and sent to specific places for composting with agricultural waste. In this way, the front-end wet garbage is treated in time to avoid environmental pollution and reduce the secondary fermentation in the transportation process; secondly, the front-end reduction is realized after dehydration, and the transportation cost is greatly saved. Once the wet garbage in Hongmei Street turns into organic fertilizer, it can be directly used in small-scale farms around Shanghai.
From the city people’s table, back to the city people’s table
In China, another dilemma of wet waste recycling is that the product outlet after disposal of wet waste is very narrow. Through nearly one year’s exploration, the pilot project of wet garbage in Hongmei street has formed a recycling mode of “from the city people’s table to the city people’s table”. In order to ensure the quality of agricultural products, the agricultural departments of the government will also conduct soil sampling tests on the pilot farms from time to time.
In an interview with the farm, villagers said that organic fertilizer with high purity on the market is not only difficult to buy, but also much more expensive than chemical fertilizer. Once the land is not used with pesticides and chemical fertilizers, it is necessary to invest higher labor costs for daily maintenance such as weeding.
In today’s cities, organic agriculture means high input and slow output. In one year since the implementation of the local regulations on garbage classification in Shanghai, the purity and total amount of wet garbage in Hongmei street have changed qualitatively. From March 2020, the daily wet waste tends to be stable. Since Hongmei Street tried to use wet waste composting, with the increase of the amount of wet waste, 3000 mu of farmland around Shanghai has been free to use organic fertilizer from Hongmei street.
Is “closed loop mode” replicable?
Although the pilot project of Hongmei street has begun to take shape, as a new form, it is different from the large-scale wet waste treatment plant invested by the government. At present, the state has not issued corresponding overall environmental assessment standards for such small-scale wet waste disposal points. How to supervise the operation of the environmental protection center of Xuhui District?
As a pilot project, the Environmental Protection Bureau and the waste management department of Xuhui District have carried out individual environmental impact assessment (EIA) in accordance with the regulatory standards of local enterprises in the park since it was put into use.
After more than two years of running in, the pilot project of local disposal of wet waste in Hongmei street has basically taken shape, which not only establishes a small-scale “closed-loop mode” of wet waste, but also brings more intuitive experience of wet waste science popularization to the public. But can such a pilot model be replicated in Shanghai and other cities in China? It will take time to give us an answer.
“Two network integration” collaborative collection and transportation, “point, station, field” three-level network
Hangtian Xinyuan is a medium-sized community with 550 households in Hongmei street. In July 2019, Hongmei Street upgraded its recyclable materials requirements to ten categories on the basis of Shanghai’s five categories. It is hoped that a more forward-looking pilot exploration of recyclables can be made in this community. At present, the new aerospace park is in the initial stage of the pilot project, and only 10 categories of recyclables are required for cleaners.
At the beginning of garbage classification in Shanghai last year, the government effectively linked the front-end domestic waste sorting and transportation system with the terminal renewable resources recovery system, forming a collection and transportation mode of “two network integration” cooperative operation. Relying on the recycling enterprises, it established a three-level recycling network of “point, station and field”, and created a huge recyclable system under the supervision of the government from collection, transportation to disposal.
Shanghai Jilin Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd. is responsible for the door-to-door recycling of Hongmei street. Jilin environmental protection Co., Ltd., established at the end of 2016, is the “regular army” of the government recycling system. At present, there are 64 “regular forces” like them in Shanghai’s “two networks integration” system. In the districts of Hongmei street, Shanghai’s “two networks integration” system will be twice a week. Like this, special vehicles will be sent to each district to purchase the recycled items collected by cleaners. At the same time, it will be adjusted at any time according to the size of the community and the amount of recyclable objects. In view of the fact that Hangtian Xinyuan is a pilot area of ten categories of recyclables in Hongmei street, the on-site recycling staff will check ten different types of recyclables one by one before weighing and registering.
In order to encourage the cleaners to classify the recyclables in the front end, Hongmei Street requires each community to provide temporary storage sites for recyclables according to local conditions as far as possible, negotiate with the properties of each community, retain the basic salary of cleaners, and encourage cleaners to sell the recyclables to the “two networks integration” system for additional income generation. In order to help the pilot exploration of ten categories in aerospace new park, the street invested money to provide hardware facilities such as shelves and sorting boxes for cleaners.
The front end makes achievements and the end bears losses
Since the implementation of waste classification in Shanghai, as of June this year, the amount of recyclable materials recovered in Shanghai has reached 6813.7 tons per day, an increase of 71.1% over the previous year. For the garbage sorting front-end, this is a very good result, but for the end of the two network convergence of enterprises, the front-end of these rapid growth of the number behind the increasingly anxious enterprise loss report.
For the enterprises in the integration system of Shanghai’s two networks, the biggest difficulty at present is that the transportation cost is too high. They not only need to send their tentacles into the front-end communities for collection and transportation, but also send the recyclable materials to different factories at the end of the line for disposal. For most of the low value-added recyclables, most of their disposal plants are not located in Shanghai, cross provincial transportation belt The high cost makes it more difficult to break even the low value recyclables.
Formulate reasonable subsidy and cultivate high and new technology
As early as March 21, 2018, the general office of Shanghai Municipal People’s government issued the implementation opinions on establishing and improving the recycling system of municipal domestic waste recyclables, which clearly stated that all districts should formulate subsidy measures for low value-added recyclables to ensure that recyclable enterprises can obtain subsidies for low-value-added recyclables.
In view of the fact that enterprises are constantly losing money in the current two network integration system, Shanghai greening and city appearance administration bureau also said that while calculating the reasonable subsidy for low value-added recyclables, the government is optimizing the urban layout of “points, stations and yards” in the “two networks integration” system and issuing relevant standards; on the other hand, it is accelerating the establishment of the “two networks integration” system and terminal The docking system of disposal enterprises.
The Shanghai municipal government also expressed the hope that more high-tech and environmental protection enterprises will settle in Shanghai in the future, cultivate a number of functional resource utilization projects, ensure the stable outlet of low value-added recyclables, and realize full coverage recovery, full category utilization and full caliber statistics.