Source: 21st century economic report
A few days ago, a number of local education authorities and university websites published the notice of the general office of the Ministry of education on strictly checking the employment data of 2020 university graduates (hereinafter referred to as the “notice”).
The notice pointed out that at present, employment statistics is facing a new situation, especially with the rapid development of China’s new industries, new formats and new models, new forms of employment are constantly emerging. In this year’s epidemic prevention and control process, also gave birth to some new jobs. In order to adapt to the new situation, the Ministry of Education organized experts to study and demonstrate. On the basis of widely soliciting opinions from colleges and universities in various regions, the meaning of relevant indicators of employment statistics of college graduates has been further clarified. Colleges and universities in all regions should strictly implement the employment statistics of 2020 graduates and future employment.
In twenty-first Century, the economic report combing reporters found that the biggest highlight of the relevant indicators of the new college graduates employment statistics lies in the “self starting” and “freelancing occupation”. The scope of self employment has joined the opening of online stores, and the scope of freelance occupation has joined Internet marketing workers, official account makers and E-sports workers.
Keeping pace with the times or relaxing employment requirements
In 1999, the Ministry of education ranked the employment rate of colleges and universities for the first time, which was regarded as the beginning of employment statistics. In that year, the Ministry of education ranked the one-time employment rate of each university for the first time, and the data source was the employment agreement.
In June 2004, the Ministry of education revised the statistical measures for the employment status of graduates. The new statistical method will bring flexible employment into the category of graduate employment statistics. Graduates who are employed in a flexible way should fill in the registration form for flexible employment of college graduates when they leave school after graduation, and the registration form shall be put on record by the university where they work.
According to the statistical method, graduates can be employed in a flexible way, including self employment and self employment.
Independent entrepreneurship refers to the establishment of enterprises (including participating in the establishment of enterprises), or the owners and managers of new enterprises. There are two types of business: individual operation and partnership operation.
Free occupation refers to a kind of occupation which is mainly composed of individual labor, such as writer, free writer, translator, intermediary service worker and some art workers.
It is found that the notice has expanded the scope of self employment and self employment.
In terms of self employment, the provisions added in the notice can be divided into three situations:
1. Establishment of companies (including individual businesses)
2. Start a business in an incubator, not yet registered or in the process of registration
3. E-commerce entrepreneurship, using the Internet platform to engage in business activities, such as opening online stores
As long as the website address of the online shop, the screenshot of the online store information and the income flow are provided, it will be taken as the basis of the audit.
In the field of freelance occupation, the notice has added more Internet marketing workers, official account makers and E-sports workers.
As long as the certification materials signed and confirmed by the graduates themselves and examined and approved by the responsible comrades of the employment departments at the University and college levels, they can be used as the basis for examination and approval.
(definition and standard of employment destination of college graduates specified in the notice)
After the implementation of such statistical indicators of employment, there may be disputes
On the one hand, with the continuous emergence of new industries, new formats and new markets, the traditional employment indicators are difficult to meet the needs of employment statistics. It is indeed necessary to improve the outdated statistical indicators, establish a new index system, and include new forms of employment such as sharing economy and network odd jobs.
The notice did not change the statistical indicators of unemployment. In fact, there have been voices in the industry calling for a new understanding of “unemployed”. In recent years, the phenomenon of “slow employment” is becoming more and more obvious, including more and more students who choose “temporary employment”. This kind of situation shows an increasing trend year by year, which must be paid enough attention to.
On the other hand, setting up online shop, Internet marketing worker, official account owner and E-sports worker is the index of raising employment rate.
First of all, opening online stores, doing we media and playing video games are the hobbies or part-time jobs of many college students, which are not only low threshold, but also difficult to maintain stable income by these jobs.
Secondly, these new forms of employment lack of accurate definition. Is it just need to register online shop and have income stream to be counted as employment? If so, the registration of online stores does not need a threshold, through the brush can easily achieve income flow, but graduates can not make a living. For another example, the notice does not specify the specific meaning of Internet marketing workers, so are wechat businesses in the circle of friends and those engaged in single brush ash industry also belong to this column?
Thirdly, the basis of university audit is relatively simple. The examination and verification of free employment is only based on the certification materials signed and confirmed by the graduates themselves, and examined and approved by the responsible comrades of the employment departments at the University and college level. There is no clear regulation on the content of the proof materials.
In this way, the expanded scope of flexible employment may make colleges and universities create false employment.
In fact, after the revision of the statistical method of graduates’ employment status in 2004, the problem of “falsification” of employment data has been constantly emerging, and the public’s recognition of the results of employment statistics is getting lower and lower.
Negative list management of employment statistics
In this regard, the notice also pointed out that the fidelity of employment data is the bottom line of employment statistics and an untouchable “high-voltage line”.
The notice pointed out that all provincial employment departments, together with education supervision departments, should check the employment data of 2020 graduates of local colleges and universities before July 4
1. Check the classified statistical information according to the connotation of Employment Statistical Indicators;
2. Verify the suspicious information from graduates on xuexin.com;
3. Nuclear practical practice units replace employment units, the proportion of “going to school” and “other forms of employment” are not true, and employment certificates are false.
According to the notice, all colleges and universities should carry out a comprehensive self-examination on their employment data, and strictly review the employment materials of each graduate. Relevant paper or electronic materials should be filed in the school level employment department for future reference. The filing time should be 3 years or more. On the basis of verification, colleges and universities should correct the wrong data in the national college graduates employment management system before 17:00 on July 4, 2020, and the leaders in charge of the university should sign for confirmation. After that, problems found and verified will be regarded as data fraud, which will be notified and severely punished according to the situation.
The notice also requires the establishment of a negative list management system for the employment statistics of college graduates, which should be included in the negative list for the localities, universities and relevant personnel who have verified the problems, and as a key reference for the negative factors in the enrollment plan arrangement (including specialties, masters and doctors), professional application, teaching evaluation, awards and excellence evaluation, leadership assessment and other work. The University Student Department of the Ministry of education will provide a negative list to relevant departments and units.
In fact, flexible employment forms such as opening online stores and doing we media may have been included in the statistical indicators of colleges and universities.
Pan Jie, director of Career Education Department of the employment guidance center of Shanghai University of Finance and economics, wrote in January 2017 that after graduation, some students opened online stores, worked as tutors, engaged in self-Media, art creation, and training teachers of sports or art projects. They did not have employment in the traditional sense, but did not have “unemployment” and “unemployment”, which is called “informal employment” in labor statistics The statistics are based on the self-reported materials of the graduates, such as the “flexible employment registration form” provided by the graduates themselves.
Pan Jie also pointed out that it is reasonable to have a certain proportion of flexible employment, but it is not normal for ordinary majors to have a flexible employment rate of 3%, 40% or even higher (but it is also reasonable that the flexible employment of graduates majoring in Arts and sports is much higher than that of ordinary majors).