Alferid Nobel, born in October 21, 1833, was born in Sweden. Nobel invented explosives, achieved thousands of scientific research achievements, successfully started many factories, and accumulated huge wealth. On the occasion of his death, he made a will: “please change my property into a fund and use the interest of this fund as a bonus every year to reward those who made outstanding contributions to mankind in the previous year.”
According to his will, from 1901, the international community was founded. In his will, he also wrote, “divide the bonus into 5 parts: first, award the person who has the most important discoveries or inventions in physics; two, reward the person who has the most important discoveries or new improvements in chemistry; three, reward people who have the most important discoveries in physiology and medicine; four, reward people who have idealistic tendencies in literature and have the best works; five To reward those who contribute to the friendship between countries and abolish the use of force.”
The Nobel prize is awarded by the fund established by Nobel’s will (from 5 awards to 6 in 1969). It is awarded annually by 4 institutions (3 in Sweden and 1 in Norway). December 10, 1901 was the first time when the death was 5th anniversary. According to its attention, the award should be awarded annually to “people who make the greatest contribution to mankind in the previous year” in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and peace. The Swedish bank added an economic science award in 1968 and the first prize in 1969.
The awarding agencies mentioned in his will are: the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (Physics and chemistry Awards), the Royal Caroline Institute of surgical medicine (Physiology or medicine), the Swedish Academy of literature (Literature Award), and the prize evaluation committee (Peace Prize), appointed by the parliament of the Swedish Academy of Sciences, and the Swedish Academy of Sciences. Supervisory economics awards. The foundation established for the implementation of the terms of a will is the lawful owner and actual manager of the fund, and is the joint management body of the awarding agency, but it does not participate in the deliberation or decision of the award. Its deliberation is entirely responsible for the above 4 organizations. Each award includes a gold medal, a certificate and a bonus; the number of bonuses depends on the foundation’s income. Economic awards are awarded in the same way as monetary values.
The selection of winners was started in the early autumn of the year before the award. First, the awarding unit sends invitations to those institutions that have the ability to nominate candidates in accordance with the regulations. The selection is based on professional competence and international prestige; the self-nominated candidates are not eligible. The nomination of candidates must be notified in writing to the relevant committee before February 1 of the year in which the award was decided.
From February 1st of each year, 6 Awards Committee, each committee, is responsible for one award – based on nomination. When necessary, the committee may invite experts from any country to participate in the selection. During the period from September to early October, the committee submits the recommendation to the relevant awarding bodies. Only in rare cases can the issue be put on hold and the awarding units must make a final decision before November 15. The committee’s recommendations are usually followed. But it is not static. The deliberations and votes at all stages were conducted in secret. Prizes are awarded only to individuals, except for peace prizes, which can also be awarded to institutions. Candidates can only be nominated before birth, but the official awards can be awarded after death, such as D- Hama Scheer De’s 1961 Peace Prize and Carle Carle’s 1931 prize in literature. Once the award has been assessed, it cannot be overturned because of objections. Official support for a candidate, whether diplomatic or political, has nothing to do with the award, because the award-giving body is independent of the state.
A bonus is either given entirely to one person, or at most equally divided between two results, or shared jointly by two or more people (actually never more than three people). Sometimes a bonus is retained until the next year. If the bonus is not awarded in the next year, it is returned to the Foundation. When the bonus is neither awarded nor retained, it is also returned to the Foundation. 。 In this way, in the same academic field, there are two bonuses in a year, that is, the last year’s bonus and the current year’s bonus. If the winner refuses or fails to receive the bonus before the specified date, the bonus will be returned to the Foundation. There has been a case of refusing to receive bonuses and the government’s prohibition of the national people from winning the lottery. However, the winners are still listed on the list of winners, marking the words “refuse to receive bonuses”, and the motives for not accepting the awards may be different, but the real reasons are mostly external pressure; for example, the decree issued in 1937 prohibits the Germans from receiving the prize, because he recognizes that the award is not acceptable. It was an insult to the C- Peace Prize awarded to the 1935 C-. No matter which reason is overdue, the rejected person may receive a gold medal and a certificate of merit when he explains the situation and applies for it, but he can not receive a bonus. The award has been returned to the foundation.
If no one can meet those requirements in Nobel’s will or the world situation is obstructing the collection of information, such as during World War I and the Second World War, the prize will be retained or stopped. The award is open to all, regardless of nationality, race, religious belief or ideology. The same winner can win multiple awards without restriction. The prize giving ceremony of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and economics was held in the year, and the peace prize presentation ceremony was held in December 10th, the anniversary of the death. Winners usually receive prizes in person.
The general rule of the award is contained in Nobel’s will. In L900, the executors of the executors, representatives of the awarding units and the family members agreed on the supplementary provisions for the interpretation and execution of the will and were approved by the king of Sweden at the Privy Council. These regulations remain largely unchanged, with only some modifications in practical applications; the basis for reviewing economic awards is scientific, i.e. mathematical or statistical, rather than political or social. The first two economists to win the economics prize, Frisch and Dinbergen, were awarded the prize for their work in econometrics, that is, the analysis of economic activities using mathematical methods.
Science Prize and medical prize have proved to be rarely controversial, while literature prize and Peace Prize are the most likely to lead to different opinions because of their special nature. Peace prizes are often retained.